GOCE Developed to do a precise map of Earth's gravity field-with the help of onboard instrumentation and the GPS network-and also study the oceans' circulation.
CryoSat-2 It will study changes in polar ice caps and floating ice.
SMOS Designed to measure soil moisture in land and salinity in the oceans, which will help us understand better the behavior of the oceans.
Aeolus It will analyze wind patterns to improve weather forecasts and the understanding of atmospheric dynamics.
Swarm This constellation of satellites will control the evolution of the Earth's geomagnetic field to help us understand Earth's interior and its climate. I don't know what kind of substances the engineers at the European Space Agency are using, but I want a double shot. [ESA via Astroengine and Euronews]