What Is This?

This ragged cloud of color looks messy and unstructured—but in fact it's a rare and unusual view of one of the most fundamental things in science. Can you work out what it is?

Sadly for you, we're going to let you puzzle over the answer for a little while. To stop you all going round in circles, though, here are a couple of clues: it was generated by a computer and the thing it depicts is used in every branch of science, from mathematics to engineering.

We'll post the solution here in an hour or so. Until then, try and work out exactly what it is amongst yourselves in the comments—without cheating and resorting to Google Images.

Update: You can find the answer here.