If we want to someday live on Mars, spaceships won’t be enough. We would need a Martian city—and this is how we might build one.
Anyone dreaming of casting off the shackles of Earth for the microgravity wasteland of Mars is in for some (more) bad news. In addition to a host of other problems, the necessary 18-month spaceflight would, apparently, lead to one very unhealthy (and spherical) astronaut heart.
Now that nuclear-thermal rockets are becoming a reality, we may very well be shipping off the first human pioneers to Mars (both safely and efficiently) in the not-too-distant future. This, of course, leaves the question of exactly who will become the first generation of Martian-Earthlings.