Photo: F Delventhal (Flickr)

In case there was any doubt—penis enlargement surgeries are usually ineffective and can leave men psychologically and physically damaged, according to a new study.

The analysis, published in Sexual Medicine Reviews, reviewed 17 studies that had assessed 21 different types of operations used on the penises of 1,192 men.

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The two most common types of procedures, according to the study, were suspensory ligament incision—which involves separating the ligament that holds the penis to the pelvic bone and provides support during erections—and dermal filler injections.

As the Guardian highlighted, the study determined that many men who undergo penis enlargement are falling victim of “charlatans,” and there is very little evidence showing any of these procedures lead to the desired results.

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Rather, these operations often cause “major complications, including penile deformity, shortening, and erectile dysfunctions,” and 80 percent of patients were left dissatisfied, according to the study conducted by researchers at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King’s College London, and King’s College hospital urologist Gordon Muir.

“These procedures should almost never be done,” Muir told the Guardian. “Often the man ends up with a penis that is disfigured and there is no more than 20 percent satisfaction rates with these procedures.”

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He added that the procedures can often cost about $40,000 to $50,000, and many of the procedures are done by swindlers who are “preying on these vulnerable men.”

“Many men who wish to undergo penis enlargement procedures have an average-sized penis but believe their size to be inadequate,” Muir told the Guardian. “Sadly, some clinics seem to ignore this. Surgeons in the private sector should not do this. It’s wrong on every level.”

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The study concludes that people considering penis enlargement should first get structured counseling, and if they still want to grow their penis, they should try penis extenders, which are meant to stretch the penis over time. The devices are still questionable but are much cheaper and safer than surgery.