Photo: Smith Collection / Gado / Getty Image

Amazon-owned home security company Ring is pursuing contracts with police departments that would grant it direct access to real-time emergency dispatch data, Gizmodo has learned.

The California-based company is seeking police departments’ permission to tap into the computer-aided dispatch (CAD) feeds used to automate and improve decisions made by emergency dispatch personnel and cut down on police response times. Ring has requested access to the data streams so it can curate “crime news” posts for its “neighborhood watch” app, Neighbors.

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“In an effort to provide relevant and reliable crime and safety information to our neighbors, one important source we rely on is CAD,” the company told Gizmodo.

Neighbors is an app through which users can share suspicions about alleged criminal activity in their neighborhoods. They can also post video captured by their Ring doorbell cameras, if they have one. Using Neighbors does not require a Ring device, however.

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An internal police email dated April 2019, obtained by Gizmodo last week via a records request, stated that more than 225 police departments have entered into partnerships with Ring. (The company has declined to confirm that, or provide the actual number.) Doing so grants the departments access to a Neighbors “law enforcement portal” through which police can request access to videos captured by Ring doorbell cameras.

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Ring says it does not provide the personal information of its customers to the authorities without consent. To wit, the company has positioned itself as an intermediary through which police request access to citizen-captured surveillance footage. When police make a request, they don’t know who receives it, Ring says, until a user chooses to share their video. Users are also prompted with the option to review their footage before turning it over.

One of Ring’s main selling points to police is that Neighbors can be used for “community building.” Police partnering with Ring are encouraged to conversate with its users, who are encouraged in turn to share “tips” about activity in their neighborhoods. Police can follow posts and receive updates via email as new tips (or complaints) roll in.

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An irate Neighbor upset that police are looking for a stolen toolbox and not “the boy” who “pulled out his pistol on” him earlier in the year.

But how often is one the victim of a crime in their own neighborhood? Likely not enough to stay engaged with the app for very long. Ring’s solution is to push out alerts about alleged criminal activity reported nearby in real-time, according to company documents obtained by Gizmodo. Hiring people to monitor police scanners all day, however, is presumably too costly and inefficient. To pull off this trick, Ring needs something better: direct access to raw police dispatch data.

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As previously reported, Ring sought to a hire a managing editor to oversee a “team of news editors” earlier this year that could “deliver breaking crime news alerts,” according to a job posting on Amazon, which purchased the company more than a year ago for around $1 billion. Various records Gizmodo has obtained offer new insight into what this “news team” may be spending much of their time doing.

Through its police partnerships, Ring has requested access to CAD, which includes information provided voluntarily by 911 callers, among other types of data automatically collected. CAD data is typically compromised of details such as names, phone numbers, addresses, medical conditions and potentially other types of personally identifiable information, including, in some instances, GPS coordinates.

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In an email Thursday, Ring confirmed it does receive location information, including precise addresses from CAD data, which it does not publish to its app. It denied receiving other forms of personal information.

Ring CAD materials provided to police.

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According to some internal documents, police CAD data is received by Ring’s “Neighbors News team” and is then reformatted before being posted on Neighbors in the form of an “alert” to users in the vicinity of the alleged incident.

“Our in-house news team monitors every alert that comes through our system and determines if they are relevant crime & safety incidents to send out to impacted neighborhoods,” Ring says in one a document, given exclusively to law enforcement officials. The document states that Ring’s team only posts alerts for eight different crimes: burglary, vehicle break-in and theft, robbery, shots fired, shootings, stabbing, hostage, and arson.

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A Ring spokesperson said in an email that CAD data is also used to issue alerts for residential, commercial, and structure fires, as well as explosions, as seen in the screenshot provided below:

Screenshot: Ring

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The document also includes a list of more than 60 crimes for which Ring will not alert its users. Among “many more,” these include assault, rape, theft, bomb threats, school lockdowns, trespassing, vandalism, domestic disputes, and “dead person.”

“We use an API call, and ingest applicable categories and data points into our content management system, and all incidents will be edited and reviewed before being sent to our users,” the company told police in its marketing material.

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Screenshot: Ring CAD materials provided to police.

It further states that the incidents “must be timely.” Ring will not issue alerts, it says, for crimes that are more than an hour old. “The incident must be useful for the community at large,” the materials say. “If it only affects an individual and does not pose as an active threat to others, we will not post.”

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Neighbors is not the only app seeking access to CAD. Another, called PulsePoint, which is run by a San Francisco-based nonprofit, relies on real-time access to emergency dispatch data. Whenever a 911 call is placed about someone going into cardiac arrest, it issues alerts to people who are CPR certified nearby. It also pinpoints the locations of AEDs (automated external defibrillators). CPR volunteers are alerted to cardiac emergencies at the same rate as police, upping the chance that victims receive assistance in time to save their lives.

While some police departments do publish real-time police dispatch information—the Dallas Police Department, for example, does so on its website, which is in turn used to power this unofficial Twitter feed—some of the information is considered sensitive. Earlier this year, when the Seattle Police Department sought access to CAD software, it triggered a requirement for a privacy impact report under a city ordinance concerning the acquisition of any “surveillance technologies.”

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According to the definition adopted by the city, a technology has surveillance capability if it can be used “to collect, capture, transmit, or record data that could be used to surveil, regardless of whether the data is obscured, de-identified, or anonymized before or after collection and regardless of whether technology might be used to obscure or prevent the capturing of certain views or types of information.”

Some CAD systems, such as those marketed by Central Square Technologies (formerly known as TriTech), are used to locate cellular callers by sending text messages that force the return of a phone-location service tracking report. CAD systems also pull in data automatically from phone companies, including ALI information—Automatic Location Identification—which is displayed to dispatch personnel whenever a 911 call is placed. CAD uses these details, along with manually entered information provided by callers, to make fast, initial decisions about which police units and first responders should respond to which calls.

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According to Ring’s materials, the direct address, or latitude and longitude, of 911 callers is among the information the Neighbors app requires police to provide, along with the time of the incident, and the category and description of the alleged crime.

Ring said that while it uses CAD data to generate its “News Alerts,” sensitive details, such as the direct address of an incident or the number of police units responding, are never included.

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Additional reporting by Mario Aguilar.

Correction: A previous version of this article incorrectly stated that Ring was hiring a “team” of news editors earlier this year. It instead only sought to hire an editor to oversee a team of news editors that was already in place.

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