Russian marine biologist Alexander Semenov studied invertebrates at Moscow State University Moscow State with an emphasis in squid brains. Yeah! Squid brains. Pretty awesome. And that's only like the fifteenth coolest thing over at WonderHowTo, where you'll find an interview with Semenov along with some stunning images of the otherworldly sea creatures he photographs.
But there too you'll learn that photographing tiny arctic sea aliens is not all that different from photographing your child, say, or your dog.
It's simple: Take a camera and macro lens, and encase it in an underwater housing. Connect all the cords, close it, check all edges and buttons, and check your underwater strobes. Then lug all (approximately) 8kg of your high tech photography equipment out on the boat, dive into the sea, and find your creature. Manually set up all parameters of the camera and strobes-then be sure not to move or even breath-and adjust your camera to find the right focus point (no auto-focusing, all manual). Press the shutter button, and that's it. Well, almost. There are always some environmental issues, such as currents, icy cold water (-2*C), total darkness below 20m depth, constant turbidity, and more. But you can get accustomed to it after about two or three hundreds dives.