Microplastics Discovered in Key Drinking Water Source

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The one thing we humans have done an incredible job of leaving behind is plastic. Microplastics, in particular, are seemingly everywhere these days: in sea turtles, table salt, and even beer. Now, a new study offers evidence that microplastics may be infiltrating our groundwater supply, too. Illinois-based researchers found microplastics in springs and wells from two aquifers in the state.

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This latest study, published in the journal Groundwater last week, claims to be the first to find microplastics in fractured limestone aquifers, which make up about a quarter of the drinking water supply worldwide. Because of their geology, these aquifers are highly porous, so they can easily absorb water from the surface above—and all that comes with it. The team of researchers from the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center and Loyola University Chicago collected 11 groundwater samples from an aquifer near St. Louis and six more from an aquifer in northwestern Illinois.

Only one sample came back microplastic-free. The researchers speculate the tiny plastic fibers they found are coming from household septic tanks, perhaps carrying runoff from laundry loads.

Clothes have previously been identified as a key source of microplastic pollution, with each wash potentially releasing hundreds of thousands of tiny plastic fibers. In this latest study, the highest concentration of plastics found in a sample was around 15 particles per liter.

That doesn’t really mean much right now. Not enough data on microplastics in groundwater exists for scientists to say whether this is a lot. Plus, we still don’t know much about the impacts of microplastics on our bodies, so there’s no concentration that’s deemed unsafe or illegal.

“The research on this topic is at a very early stage, so I am not convinced we have a frame of reference to state expectations or bounds on what is considered low or high levels,” said Tim Hoellein, a professor of biology at Loyola University Chicago and co-author on the new study, in a press release. “Our questions are still basic: How much is there, and where is it coming from?”

These researchers didn’t just discover microplastics in the water. They also found medicine and household contaminants, supporting the idea that the particles originated in household septic systems.

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A study out earlier this year found some microplastics in groundwater, but not enough to raise any alarms. Last year, a separate study warned that the impacts of microplastics on land-based ecosystems, including soils and freshwater, may be just as harmful as impacts in the ocean.

This new study is just the latest to remind us that our local water supplies may be vulnerable. And whether microplastics are entering our drinking water or our fish, they’re eventually making their way back to us.

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DISCUSSION

By
Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid

The study focussed on two of the extreme karst aquifers systems in Illinois. Not much of Illinois limestone is karst.

The remedy is to get rid of septic systems that don’t pass a rigorous percolation (perc) test. My guess is perc tests were never done in those two areas of Illinois.

From the paper:

Karst aquifers are groundwater ecosystems made up of creviced carbonate rock commonly overlain by cover-collapse sinkholes. The open nature of karst aquifers makes them vulnerable to the rapid transport of surface-borne contaminants in dissolved and particulate forms (White 1988).

The objectives of this study were to determine if microplastics are present in groundwater wells and springs in karst regions and if they co-occur with other anthropogenic contaminants. We hypothesized that microplastics were present in many karst groundwater systems due to 1) the open nature of karst systems to surface water and the atmosphere and 2) the prevalence of groundwater contamination by septic effluent.