Palm is apparently shipping out mobile phones with Linux on them sometime this year. Rumor has it that they'll be using Wind River Linux to power the devices—that's the same company that makes the OS for the Mars Rovers. Could this mean we'll see a Linux-based Treo on planet Earth in the near-future? Probably not, but we our imaginations can slip the surly bonds of Earth, right?
On the other hand:
Palm CEO Ed Colligan is reported to have said, "No, we don't need another operating system," in response to questions about whether Palm would base a future version of the Treo on another OS, such as Linux. "Do not take developing a product on a whole new platform lightly," Colligan added.
So there's that. Linux-based smartphones are very popular in Asia, and Linux has even surpassed Microsoft Mobile in Japan, which kinda kicks ass.