Confirmed: Lightning Causes Nuclear Reactions in the Sky

Image: Dmitry Kalinin/Flickr
Image: Dmitry Kalinin/Flickr

Lightning is nuts. It’s a supercharged bolt of electricity extending from the sky to the ground that can kill people. But it can also produce nuclear reactions, according to new research.

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Scientists have long known that thunderstorms can produce high-energy radiation, like this one from December, 2015 that blasted a Japanese beach town with some gamma radiation. But now, another team of researchers in Japan are reporting conclusive evidence of these gamma rays setting off atom-altering reactions like those in a nuclear reactor.

Basically, we previously wrote that scientists “think that high-energy gamma rays interacted with nitrogen in the atmosphere, leading to the production of neutrons,” emphasis added. With this new paper, published today in Nature, a team says that they now know this is happening.

Winter thunderstorms are common on the coast of the Sea of Japan, making it a ripe place to study them. These measurements come from a pair of lightning strikes on February 6, 2017, according to the new paper published in Nature, which left a whole lot of radiation in four detectors between 0.5 and 1.7 kilometers away, around a third of a mile to a mile. Following the flash came an afterglow of radiation for up to a minute. After analyzing the data and the energies of the particles that came out, the researchers felt they’d conclusively observed the results of those gamma rays kicking neutrons off of nitrogen atoms.

This is cool for a lot of reasons. Most notably, you may remember that atoms like carbon and nitrogen get their identity from their number of protons, but they can have varying flavors based on their number of neutrons. This result could “provide a previously unknown channel for generating” rarer “isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen naturally on Earth,” according to the paper.

At least one other researchers found the results convincing. The observations are a “conclusive indication of electron–positron annihilation,” an expected byproduct of some of these radioactive decays, “and represents unequivocal evidence that photonuclear reactions can be triggered by thunderstorms, wrote Leonid Babich, a researcher at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Research, in a Nature commentary.

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As you’d expect, there’s more work to be done determining just how many of these isotopes lightning creates and what else lightning might create.

But it’s pretty nuts that when a thunderstorm rolls by, it’s as if the earth is operating as a temporary nuclear reactor.

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[Nature]

Former Gizmodo physics writer and founder of Birdmodo, now a science communicator specializing in quantum computing and birds

DISCUSSION

So, did you even read the abstract? You wrote “Following the flash came an afterglow of radiation for up to a minute.” Dude, I hope you know the difference between milliseconds and seconds, lol. The abstract said “The subsequent γ-ray afterglow subsided quickly, with an exponential decay constant of 40–60 milliseconds...” Also, this is NOTHING like a fucking nuclear reactor. A nuclear reactor operates on nuclear fission of heavy isotopes via neutron absorption. It is a photonuclear reaction: gamma ray captured by a carbon 14 nucleus and neutron emitted by the nucleus, leaving unstable carbon 13. The carbon 13 is unstable and beta decays. The half life of the carbon 13 decay gave it about a minute of activity. The beta particles that were emitted annihilated with electrons, giving the characteristic 0.511 MeV gamma ray.

ref: My Ph.D. in nuclear physics from one of the leading photonuclear research groups in the world at Duke University + 28 years as a physics professor. We usually were doing photonuclear from the other direction, particles capturing and gammas emitted.